[转载]进行可用性测试的8个指南

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译文:进行可用性测试的8个指南

引言:
  在专业的web设计圈,可用性测试会议已经成为任何重点项目的一个基本组成部分。对于关注品牌发展和产品开发的人群来来说,可用性测试是提供获取网站目标人群的反馈意见的宝贵机会,并且应该尽早开始.

  但是你怎样才能从这些可用性测试会议中收获最多的东西呢?
  
  1. 选择你的课题

  正如任何市场研究项目,结果和你需要测试的人一样,不要以你自己公司的人或者朋友以及家人作为测试人群。可以去任何一家市场研究公司或者临时代理机构和他们沟通关于这个课题的参与者。确定市场研究公司不会提供公司的名称或任何其它细节,从而避免这些东西影响参与者的判断。

  2.可用性测试前期
  就如生命中的任何事情,第一印象是最关键的,每个参与者必须很放松。记住,可用性测试会议室通常是一个极端人造的环境,并且最有益和最具信息的结果就是,我们希望他们他们的行为就像他们在家里或者办公室里一样。

  为如何到达可用性测试场所提供清晰的指引,必要的话,在当地会见这些参与者。不要使用诸如“可用性测试”或者“市场调查”这样的术语,因为这些会干扰参与者并使他们紧张。同样,确保参与者知道可用性测试时间需要多久,希望他们执行的任务类型是什么。

  在最开始的问候和欢迎酒之后,通常会签署一些法定的条款。 这些用最通俗易懂的的英文来书写是很重要的,并且要尽可能的简短。最后一件事是任何一个紧张的可用性测试项目需要的,就是给一份类似他们签署的东西的合同。对于他们来说,你想要的全部就是保证这些测试是完全保密的,并且在测试过程中,作为我们测试结果的一部分允许生成数据。所以告诉他们这些。

  3.可用性测试的开始
  
  在进入到关键任务之前,先让使用者熟悉环境,告诉他们网站的名称和URL,并且询问他们他们所喜欢的网站的类型是什么以及他们希望从他们喜欢的网站获得什么信息或者需求,从而来获得反馈。将他们使用的任何术语和语句都做下笔记,这并不仅仅代表你正在认真地对待他们的反馈,而且对于关键的功能性和导航性的可用标签可以提供有用的东西。
  
  其次,让他们看看他们所测试的网站,在他们熟悉网站之前度量他们最初的印象。

  4.选择任务

  设定任务对于一个新网站的成功是至关重要的,例如:(某电子商务网站)

  • 购买东西
  • 付钱
  • 联系顾客

  记住,你并不是在寻找自我信息。网站的建立是有原因的-你的目标观众是不是在做你希望他们做的事情?

  询问用户来建议任务也是一个很好的主意,虽然这会给出他们期望和需求的另一种暗示,但是这可能建议了新的功能性和优先性。

  5.怎样来写任务
  
  如果你给定他们一定的情节而不是指令,人们趋向于更自然的行为。当给定他们任务时,你可能会使用这样的句子“事件A已经发生,你现在需要马上拨打公司电话-找到电话号码”。这比“找到网站的联系我们的部分”要好得多。

  6.提出任务

  一个事件只给参与者一个任务,这样会让他们更快或者改变他们到达测试的路径。

  如果使用者从测试外部需要进行用户输入(例如:一个email地址让他们输入密码进入网站),在给他们提出的任务的表格中给出他们这些输入项。者将给整个过程的所有元素提供有用的反馈,而不是简化网站。

  7.在可用性测试过程中如何执行

  记住正在测试的网站非常重要,不仅是你或者课题,而且包括任何你获取的有价值的反馈-确保参与者也要知道这一点。如果他们什么也做不了,要让他们确信这不是他们的错。

  在整个测试过程中你必须保持安静并且视而不见。你不能通过提供线索,暗示方向或他们所说或所作事情的反应来改变测试结果,年给出的所有反馈都必须中立的。不要摇头或发怒,但是可以诱惑!

  唯一你能说话的时间就是帮助参与者给出他们的观点或者阐明的时候给予一个响应,如果存有疑惑,那就闭嘴!

  让投资者参与项目,客户通常很难在测试过程中保持沉默,如果你的客户想在场,把他们安排在另一间有声音和视频连接的房间.

  8.可用性测试之后
  
  在完成所有的测试之后,你应当汇集尽可能多的信息,询问对网站的整体印象将使你能够判断是否已达到预期的期望,而不管参与者对于客户或者网站的观点在这个过程中是否发生了改变。

  经常的询问建议-这不仅证明你对他们想法的价值的认同,而且能更好的洞察网站如何才能更好的支持用户。

  最后,询问参与者他们所能记住的网站的结构和功能。清晰的回忆将会确认网站结构的逻辑性并帮助识别任何你可能忽略的分类标签.

  这篇文章由Tim Fidgeon所写,Usability at Webcredible的领头人,他热衷于可用性并且操Webcredible网站的可用性培训以及为网络培训写作。尊重作者辛苦劳动,转载请标注出处.————————感谢”小仙”,对翻译的支持

原文:
Introduction
In professional web design circles, the usability testing session has become an essential component of any major project. Similar to focus groups in brand development and product launches, usability testing offers a rare opportunity to receive feedback from the very people the website is aimed at – before it’s too late to do anything about it.

But how can you get the most from these usability testing sessions?

1. Choosing your subjects
As with any market research project, the results will only be as good as the people you test. Do not test people from your own company, or friends and family. Go to a market research firm or temp agency and ask them to source participants to a certain profile. Make sure the market research firm does not provide the name of the company or any other details that will cloud the judgement of the participants.

2. Before the usability testing
As with everything in life, first impressions are vital. Each participant must be put at ease. Remember, the usability testing session is often an extremely artificial environment and, for the most beneficial and informative results, we want them to behave as if they were using the site at home or work.

Provide clear instructions on how to get to the usability testing location, and if necessary meet the participants at local stations. Do not use terms such as usability testing or market research, as these can confuse and put people on edge. Also, ensure that participants know how long the usability testing will take, and the type of tasks they will be expected to perform.

After the initial greeting and welcoming drinks, there are always legal forms that must be signed. It is essential that these are written in plain English, and are as short as possible. The last thing any nervous usability testing subject wants is to be given a contract that looks like they’re signing their soul away. All you want is for them to be reassured that the tests are completely confidential, and for permission to use the data generated during the test as part of our results. So tell them that.

3. Beginning the usability testing
Before diving into key tasks, get the user familiar with the environment. Tell them the website’s name and URL, and ask them for initial feedback on what they would expect from the site or what they would like the site to be. Make note of any terms or phrases they use – this not only demonstrates you are taking their feedback seriously, but may provide useful tips as to possible labels for key functionality or navigation.

Next, let them look at the website they are testing. Gauge their first impressions before allowing them to familiarise themselves with the site.

These few simple tasks will help convince the participant that the usability testing will not be difficult and, perhaps most importantly, that they’re not the ones being tested.

4. Choosing tasks
Set tasks that are essential to the new site’s success, such as:

*Buying products
*Paying bills
*Contacting the client

Remember, you’re not looking for an ego massage. The site was built for a reason – can your target audience do what you need them to do?

It’s also a good idea to ask the user to suggest tasks. While this gives another indication of their expectations and requirements, it may suggest new functionality or priorities.

5. How to word tasks
People tend to perform more naturally if you provide them with scenarios rather than instructions. When giving them tasks, you should use phrases like Scenario A has occurred, and you need to ring the company urgently – find the telephone number. This is far better than find the contact us section of the site.

6. Presenting tasks
Only give participants one task at a time. More than this may intimidate them, or alter their approach to the test.

If the user is required to use inputs from outside the test (e.g. an email giving them a password to the site), give them these inputs in the form they will be presented. This will provide useful feedback on all elements of the process, rather than simply the site.

7. How to behave during the usability testing
It’s essential that you remember that it’s the website that is being tested, not you or the subject. Any feedback you get is valuable – make sure the participant knows this. If they can’t do something, make sure they know it’s not their fault.

You must stay quiet and out of sight during the test. You must not alter the test results by providing clues, suggesting directions or by reacting to things they say or do. All feedback you give must be neutral. Do not start shaking your head or huffing, however tempting it might be!

The only time you should speak is to help the participant give an opinion, or to clarify a response. If in doubt, shut up!

Given the investment made in the project, clients often find it difficult to be quiet during tests. If your client wants to be present, put them in another room with an audio/video link.

8. After the usability testing
After all the tasks have been completed, you should gather as much information as possible. Asking for overall impressions of the site will allow you to judge whether expectations have been met, and whether the participant’s view of the client or site has changed during the process.

Always ask for suggestions – this not only demonstrates the value you place on their thoughts, but may provide insights into how the site can better support the user.

Finally, ask the participant what they remember about the site structure and functions of the site. Clear recollection will confirm that the site is structured logically and help identify any labelling issues you may have missed.
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